剽窃文字,后果有多严重?

施乐遥 转告我,说我们两人上周写《英国虎妈》的博文,给《英中时报》用上了, 当成社论,题为虎妈故事引华人教育观大交锋

这本是好事。问题是,这篇记者的报道,没指明博文来源出处,没来电邮通知,记者也没专访我们。

这篇文字,读起来,好像是记者亲自访问过我们似的,左一句施女士,右一句张女士。

这样,算剽窃吗?

去年,英国独立报 (The Independent), 有个著名的年轻专栏作者,叫 Johann Hari,因为屡次在访谈文章中,加油添醋,先在 Twitter 中遭人揭发,在新闻界,掀起了巨波。最后,Johann Hari  遭停职查办、道歉,自己出钱去补上新闻课。

这个明星记者,2008 年还曾获得新闻界的大奖 The Orwell Prize。剽窃遭揭发后,他自知羞愧,主动退回这份荣誉。

更多详文请看:Johann Hari suspended pending investigation

自认剽窃文字的记者 Johann Hari

Johann Hari 是怎么剽窃的呢?他错在: using unattributed quotes --即没有正确引述资料来源。

他专访后,并不照实引用受访者当时对他说过的话,而是去找资料,把其他人写过的内容,或受访者曾经说过的类似的话,加入他自己的访谈文章内,让读者以为,那些内容,都是受访者当时向他披露的。

在道歉中,他承认了自己所犯的错误,简述如下:

(一):引用受访者的文字,或他人写过的文字,当成是自己的。

(二):没有使用新闻学中的 一些明文规定  (convention) 。Johann Hari 说:“我应该写  ‘她曾说过’, 而不是  ‘她说’;应该写  ‘她曾对纽约时报说过’ 或  ‘她在书中披露’ ,而不应该直接把受访者在其他地方清楚说过的内容,用来取代受访者在访谈中说得不清楚的话。

“I did two wrong and stupid things. The first concerns some people I interviewed over the years. When I recorded and typed up any conversation, I found something odd: points that sounded perfectly clear when you heard them being spoken often don’t translate to the page. They can be quite confusing and unclear. When this happened, if the interviewee had made a similar point in their writing (or, much more rarely, when they were speaking to somebody else), I would use those words instead. At the time, I justified this to myself by saying I was giving the clearest possible representation of what the interviewee thought, in their most considered and clear words.”

“But I was wrong. An interview isn’t an X-ray of a person’s finest thoughts. It’s a report of an encounter. If you want to add material from elsewhere, there are conventions that let you do that. You write “she has said,” instead of “she says”. You write “as she told the New York Times” or “as she says in her book”, instead of just replacing the garbled chunk she said with the clear chunk she wrote or said elsewhere. If I had asked the many experienced colleagues I have here at The Independent – who have always been very generous with their time – they would have told me that, and they would have explained just how wrong I was. It was arrogant and stupid of me not to ask。”

相关报道:The Economist (经济学人杂志): The depressing tale of Johann Hari

《独立报》总编说:Johann Hari 丑闻严重损害《独立报》威信 Independent editor: Johann Hari scandal ‘severely damaged’ paper Chris Blackhurst admits that plagiarism caused ‘shock’, and reveals columnist is to return in four to five weeks

后记:

《英中时报》记者今日 (1 月 16 日)发来电邮,诚挚致歉、澄清,也修订了该篇报道内容,加入了我们的名字和博文题目,也将补发稿酬。

此事暂告一段落。谢谢各位读者的关注。

英国的中国虎妈 -- 我们是不是太焦虑了?

英国白人小孩休闲时做什么?

虎妈,华人,安全感 – 施乐遥

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Janet Williams 張玉雲

I am Janet Williams, an academic living in the southeast of England. I blog about culture, history, languages and my community. I created Chandler's Ford Today. During my spare time, I make Origami. Thank you for stopping by.

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